NOWEGIAN SUSPECT SOUGHT CRISTIAN CIVIL WAR


Oslo. The Norwegian man who was charged Saturday with a pair of attacks in Oslo that killed at least 92 people left behind a detailed manifesto outlining his preparations and calling for a Christian civil war to defend Europe against the threat of Muslim domination, according to Norwegian and American officials familiar with the investigation.

As stunned Norwegians grappled with the deadliest attack in the country since World War II, a portrait began to emerge of the suspect, Anders Behring Breivik, 32. The police identified him as a right-wing fundamentalist Christian, while acquaintances described him as a gun-loving Norwegian obsessed with what he saw as the threats of multiculturalism and Muslim immigration.

''We are not sure whether he was alone or had help," a police official, Roger Andresen, said at a televised news conference. "What we know is that he is right wing and a Christian fundamentalist."

In the 1,500-page manifesto, posted on the Web hours before the attacks, Breivik recorded a day-by-day diary of months of planning for the attacks and claimed to be part of a small group that intends to "seize political and military control of Western European countries and implement a cultural conservative political agenda."

He predicted a conflagration that would kill or injure more than 1 million "Marxists/multiculturalists" but added: "The time for dialogue is over. We gave peace a chance. The time for armed resistance has come."

The manifesto was signed Andrew Berwick, an Anglicized version of his name. A former US government official briefed on the case said investigators believed the manifesto was Breivik's work.

The manifesto, titled "2083: A European Declaration of Independence," claims to explain "what your government, the academia and the media are hiding from you" and warns against "appeasement and anti-European thinking."

Breivik was also believed to have posted a video Friday calling for Christian conservatives in Europe to rise up violently as a modern-day version of the Crusades-era Knights Templar to save Europe from Islamic totalitarianism. In its closing moments, the video depicts Breivik in military uniform, holding assault weapons.

YouTube removed the video Saturday.

Rarely has a plotter left so detailed an account of his activities. The document describes in detail his purchase of chemicals, his sometimes ham-handed experiments making explosives and his first successful test detonation of a bomb in a remote location on June 13.

He intersperses the account of bomb-making with details of his television-watching, including the Eurovision music contest and the U.S. police drama "The Shield."

The manifesto ends with a chilling signoff: "I believe this will be my last entry. It is now Fri July 22nd, 12.51."

Indeed, the operation appeared to have been extremely well planned.

According to police, Breivik first drew security services to central Oslo when he exploded a car bomb outside a 17-story government office building, killing at least seven people.

Then, dressed as a police officer, he took a public ferry to Utoya Island, where he carried out a remarkably meticulous attack on Norway's current and future political elite. Once there, according to witnesses, he said he had come to check on the security of the young people who were attending a political summer camp there, many children of members of the governing Labor Party.

He gathered the campers together and for some 90 hellish minutes, he coolly and methodically proceeded to shoot them and then hunt down those who fled, turning an idyllic island into an abattoir. At least 85 people, some as young as 16, were killed.

Police said Saturday evening that they expected the death toll to climb. There were still bodies in the bombed government buildings in Oslo, and at least four people missing on Utoya.

Police also said that unexploded munitions were still in some downtown Oslo buildings, and they had not ruled out the possibility that Breivik had accomplices.

Besides the manifesto, Breivik left other hints of his motives.

A Facebook page and Twitter account were set up under his name days before the rampage, suggesting a conscious effort to construct a public persona and leave a legacy for others. The Facebook page cites philosophers like Machiavelli, Kant and John Stuart Mill.

His lone Twitter post, while not calling for violence, paraphrased Mill and suggested what he saw as his will to act: "One person with a belief is equal to the force of 100,000 who have only interests."

Those postings, along with what was previously known about Breivik publicly, aligned with but hardly predicted the bloody rampage he would undertake on Friday.

He had been a member of the right-wing Progress Party, which began as an anti-tax protest and has been stridently anti-immigrant and anti-Muslim.

Joran Kallmyr, a member of the party who is now Oslo's vice mayor for transportation, said he met Breivik several times in 2002 and 2003 at local party meetings. "He was very quiet, almost a little bit shy," Kallmyr said. "But he was a normal person with good behavior. He never shared any extreme thoughts or speech with us. There was absolutely no reason to expect that he could do something like this. We're very shocked."

Breivik quit the party in 2006, apparently disappointed by the party's move toward the center.

''He was there for a short time," Kallmyr said, "but he didn't like our politics, I guess, and moved on."

His Internet posts also indicated contempt for the Conservative Party. He said it had given up a serious battle against multiculturalism, which he said was diluting the nation's character.

But on Friday he directed his firepower squarely at the center-left Labor Party, which leads the coalition government.

''Breivik feels that multiculturalism is destroying the society and that the enforcing authority is the prime minister and the Labor Party, the lead party of contemporary Norwegian politics," said Anders Romarheim, a fellow at the Norwegian Institute for Defense Studies. "No other political party has a political camp like this one."

The episode also raised questions about whether the Norwegian security authorities, concentrating on threats of Islamic terrorism, had overlooked the threat from the anti-Islamic right.

''This is the Norwegian equivalent to Timothy McVeigh," the right-wing American who blew up a government building in Oklahoma City in 1995, said Marcus Buck, a political scientist at the University of Tromso in northern Norway. "This is right-wing domestic terrorism, and the big question is to what extent Norwegian agencies have diverted their attention from what they knew decades ago was the biggest threat" and instead focused on threats from militant Islamist groups.

The unclassified versions of the last three reports by the Norwegian Police Security Service assessing the threats to the country all played down the threat posed by right-wing and nationalist extremists. Instead, the reports emphasized the dangers of radical Islam, groups opposed to Norway's participation in NATO operations in Afghanistan and now Libya, economic espionage against the country's resources and technology assets and potential threats to Norwegian dignitaries.

The 2011 report, released early this year, said that there had been "an increase in the activity of far-right extremist groups in 2010," but concluded that "the far-right and far-left extremist communities will not represent a serious threat to Norwegian society."

Even after the attacks, that appeared to be the official position.

Breivik was being questioned under the country's terrorism laws, police said, and was cooperating with the investigation.

Arild Groven, secretary-general of the Norwegian Shooting Association, a sports shooting group, confirmed that Breivik had belonged to Oslo Pistol8klubb, one of the 520 clubs in the association.

''We all read and watch the news about the shootings in the United States," Groven said. "But it doesn't happen here."

He said the process of obtaining a handgun license for sports shooting was strict, requiring a safety certification and a police background check. Fully automatic weapons are illegal here.

Kristian Ulrichsen, a researcher at the London School of Economics, said in some ways the homegrown nature of the terror made it harder for Norwegians to accept. "With 9/11 in America, people could ask, 'Who are they?' and could pour their rage out on someone else," he said. "But we can't disavow this person, he's one of us. That's a sobering thought."
  
New York Times

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